Can we define what an o.s is? In general, we have no completely adequate definition of o.s. and o.s exists because they offer a reasonable way to solve the problem of creating a usable system. The fundamental goal of computer systems is to execute user programs and to make solving user.
What is Operating System? :-
An operating system is a program that manages hardware of the computer. It provides a basis for application programs and acts as an intermediary between the computer user and the pc hardware. An amazing aspect of operating systems is how varied they are in accomplishing these tasks.
Mainframe operating systems are designed primarily to optimize utilization of hardware. Personal computer (PC) operating systems support hardest games, business applications, and all are in between. Operating systems for handheld computers are designed to provide an environment in which a user can easily interface with the computer to run programs. Thus, some operating systems are designed to the convenient, others to be efficient, and others some coupled of the two. Before we can explore the details of p.c operation, we need to know something about p.c structure. We begin by discussing the basic functions of System startup, I/O, and storage. We also describe general architecture of computer that makes it possible to write a functional part of system. Because an operating system is very big and complex, it must be created part by part, each of these pieces should be a well-delineated portion of computer the system, with carefully mentions inputs, outputs, and functions. Now the following are providing a general overview of the major components of an operating system.
The hardware them and the devices-provides the basic computing resources for the System. The as word processors/ spread sheets/compilers, and Web browsers-define the ways in which these resources are used to solve users problems. The operating system controls the hardware and coordinates its use among the various application programs for the different users. We can also view a computer system as consisting of hardware/ software part/ and data. The operating system provides the means for proper use of these resources in the operation of the system. An operating system is similar to a government. It performs no useful work by itself. It simply provides an environment within which other programs can do useful work.
1) User View:-
The user’s view of the computer varies according to the GUI being used. Most computer users sit in front of a Computer, consisting of a monitor/ keypad/ mouse, and system unit. Such a system is designed for one user to monopolize its resources. The goal is to maximize the work (or play) that the user is doing. In this case/ the operating system is designed mostly.
For with some attention paid to performance and none paid to various hardware and software resources are shared. Speed is, of course, important to the user; but such systems are optimized for the single-user experience rather than the requirements of multiple users.
In other cases, a user sits at a terminal connected to a or a Other users are accessing the since computer through other different terminals. These are client share resources and may exchange the information. To maximize resource utilization, the operating system in S”Llclc cases is designed to assure that all available central processing unit time, memory, and I/0 are used efficiently and tab no individual user takes more than her fair share. In still other cases, users sit at connected to networks of other workstations and these users have dedicated resources at their disposal, but they also distribute resources such as networking and servers-data, compute, and print servers. Therefore, their operating system is designed to manage individual usability and resource utilization. Recently, many varieties of distributed computers have come into manner. Most of these devices are standalone units for users.
Some are connected to networks, either directly by wire or indirectly (more often) through wireless modems and network. Due to power, speed, and communicating or GUI limitations, they perform relatively few remote operations. Their o.s is designed mostly for separate usability, but performance per unit of battery of life is compulsory as well. Some computers have little or no user view. For example, embedded computers in desktop p.c devices and automobiles may have numeric keypads and may turn indicator lights on or off to show status, but they and their o.s are designed first step to run without user intervention.
2) System View:-
From the computer’s side view, the operating system is the program most intimately involved with the hardware. In this context, we can see an OS as a computer system which has many resources that may be required to solve a problem: CPU time, memory space, File-storage space, I/0 devices, and so on. The operating system performs as the manager of the resources. Facing different and possibly conflicting requests for resources, the o.s must decide how to allocate those to specific programs and users so that it can operate the computer system efficiently. As we have seen, resource allocation is especially important where many users access the same mainframe or minicomputer. A just different View of an operating system emphasizes the need to control the various I/0 devices and user programs. An operating system is control program. It manages the user’s programs execution to prevent errors and improper use of the p.c. It is especially concerned with the performance of operation and control of I/O devices.
An operating system acts as an intermediary between the user of a computer and the p.c hardware. The purpose of an o.s is to provide an environment in which a user can execute programs in a convenient and efficient manner. An o.s is software that manages the computer hardware. The hardware must provide appropriate mechanisms to ensure the correct operation of the p.c and to prevent user programs from interfering with the GUI and proper operation of the computer system.