The computer networking can be defined as it is interconnection of two or more computer that communicates with each other. Today’s society is known as information society is impossible for human being to live without communicating with each other so the computer networking allows people communicate irrespective to geographical location. The merging of computers and communications has had a profound influence on the way computer systems are organized. Now days computer networks are very advanced and secure. ”computer network” to mean a collection of autonomous computers interconnected by a single technology. Two computers are said to be interconnected if they are able to exchange information. The connection need not be via a copper wire; fiber optics, microwaves, infrared, and communication satellites can also be used. Networks come in many sizes, shapes. Internet is examples of computer network.
TYPES OF COMPUTER NETWORK:
- PEER TO PEER NETWORK
In peer to peer network there is no fixed client and server. In peer to peer model two or more computers are connected to each other to share resources and there is no need to have server.
- CLIENT SERVER NETWORK
In client server network there is one powerful computer knows as server which has good configuration which serves the need of clients. Server holds the resources like printer, files, database, disks, etc. the clients are computer which requests certain resources from server.
A server can handle number of clients at time. One advantage of using client server model is that resource sharing and cost reduction. We can install one network printer and that can be shared by all other clients.
- LOCAL AREA NETWORK
Local area networks, generally called LANs, are privately-owned networks within a single building or campus of up to a few kilometers in size. They are widely used to connect personal computers and workstations in company offices and factories to share resources (e.g., printers) and exchange information.
THE OSI REFERENCE MODEL
This model is based on a proposal developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO) as a first step toward international standardization of the protocols used in the various layers (Day and Zimmermann, 1983). It was revised in 1995 (Day, 1995). The model is called the ISO OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Reference Model because it deals with connecting open systems—that is, systems that are open for communication with other systems. We will just call it the OSI model for short. This is reference model it helps network engineers to develop a computer network.
Protocols are the rules and regulation that determines how data is exchanged. Data transfer is not simply transmitting data over different transmission line there should be some way to control. There are number of protocols which operates at different levels like DHCP, TCP , UDP etc.
APPLICATIONS OF COMPUTER NETWORK
Computer network allows business enterprises to send and receive business data. For example in bank all transactions are carried out using computer network. Computer network is used to conduct online trading. E-commerce is conducted over internet. In office we can share printer, files, data, etc.
Now day’s internet is important tool of entertainment using technologies like 3G you can download and watch movies on your mobile phone. You can play multiplayer games. You can chat with your friends, share photos and videos.