The brain computer interface is new technology that allows human beings to control computer directly from their brain. BCIs focusing on motor neuroprosthetics aim to either restore movement in individuals with paralysis or provide devices to assist them, such as interfaces with computers or robot arms.
Our brains are filled with neurons, individual nerve cells connected to one another by dendrites and axons. Every time we think, move, feel or remember something, our neurons are at work. When we think something, move our hand, see, feel etc. these tasks are carried out by electric signals in our brain. These signals are insulated by white fatty substance forming a sheath around many nerve fibers called as myelin still some signals get escaped so we can detect these signal using sensors and we can input these signal to computer and we can get out work done. For example I want to move cursor on screen from point A to point B what I have to do is just mentally visualize the process of moving cursor and electrical activity will be generated in my brain sensors connected to my brain will catch these signal and computer system will interpret this.
INPUT for BCI:
We can detect electrical signals from scalp but these signals are noisier than those received from brain itself for that scientists can implant electrodes directly into the gray matter of the brain itself, or on the surface of the brain, beneath the skull. This method is complicated and costly because this need surgery.
Another way to measure brain activity is the MRI system it produces very high-resolution images of brain activity.
APPLICATIONS OF BCI:
- BCI allows us to control computer directly from brain so this is very useful for physically handicapped people or those who have lost their arm in accident.
- We can implant robotic arm to armless person and implemented electrodes in this arm relays signal from brain to robotic arm so the armless person can move his robotic arm like original arm.
- Another application of BCI is handicapped people move there wheelchair they just have to think in which direction they want to go.
- Using different sensors it is possible to capture light reflected from different objects and we can convert these signals into electric signals and we can feed these signals to brain this will allow blind people to see.
- Popular application of BCI is playing computer games where player can play game without joystick and keyboard.
CHALLENGES IN BCI
- The major challenge in BCI is the brain is very complex to understand therefore this technology is very complicated to implement.
- There are about 100 billion neurons in a human brain; each neuron is constantly sending and receiving signals so it is very difficult to capture all these signals.
- Major problem is interference can occur in signal while using system person may blink his eyelid this adds strong unwanted signal in original signal.
- Equipment s used in this system are very costly and less portable.