Object Oriented Concept in JAVA

OOP consists of following features:- Abstraction Encapsulation Inheritance Polymorphism Grady Booch, a famous author who has written many books on Object Oriented Programming (OOP) has defined the abstraction, encapsulation features as, Abstraction:- An abstraction defines the essential characteristics of an object that distinguishes it from all other kinds of objects and thus provides crispy defined conceptual boundaries, relative to the perspective of the viewer. In this, it hides private implementations behind the public interfaces. e.g. Suppose we want to buy a refrigerator then we will concentrate only on the advertisement which will featuring…Read more

Essence of Corporate Planning in Industry

The corporate planning and development is a constant ,never ending  and ongoing process in which a company first, defines its philosophy ,mission and vision in a strategic plan, and then uses that plan to direct ,monitor and manage the business .strategic planning detailed operational planning and  increasing performance. Corporate planning can also defined as the process of drawing up detailed action plans to achieve an organization goals and objective, taking into consideration number of resources of the organization and the environment within which it operates .corporate planning represents a formal, a way in…Read more

Strategic Planning

This article states that how STRATEGY PLANNING helps a company in gaining an advantage over its competitor. Strategy is the determination of the basic long term goals and objective of an enterprise and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation of resources necessary for achieving these goals. There are following condition upon which Strategy planning is dependent- Market forces: One of the main reasons why strategic planning has become all the more essential is because of the unpredictable nature of the market. The market is in a constant state of transition.…Read more

Constructors and Destructors in JAVA

Before we learn about the Constructor and destructor let us discuss how to create an object in JAVA programming language. Creation of an object in JAVA:- We cannot create an object in java like C and C++ syntax like, demo d; In C++, we can read this statement as d is an object of a demo class. But in java this statement is considered as d is a reference which can refer to an object of type demo class. Means in java, a memory for that d is only for that reference. To…Read more

Software Testing Fundamentals

Software testing method for testing software This article is related to software testing in this article the fundamentals relate to testing are described. This articles present ideas of testing in simple language for those who are interested in career of software testing. For every software project we see, there is an inherent conflict of interest that occurs as testing begins. The people who have built the software are now asked to test the software.  The main idea of testing is vested interest in demonstrating that the program is free of errors i.e. free…Read more

Namespace and Templates in C++

Namespace:- There is a team development in C++ for creating a single application. Due to this team development different team members may use a same identifier for the function or any data types. Due to this same name compiler generates ambiguity error. To remove this error we have to use the concept ‘namespace’. ‘namespace’ is a work area or a declarative region that attaches an additional identifier to any names declared inside that appropriate namespace. In C++, there is default namespace as std and we are going to provide user defined namespaces under…Read more

Dynamic memory allocation in C++

Dynamic memory allocation:- In C, we can allocate dynamic memory by using malloc, calloc ande realloc library functions. All the above functions are applicable in C++. But there are some disadvantages in C++. To avoid those disadvantages C++ provides its own memory allocation and de-allocation mechanism For dynamic memory allocation in C++ we have to use ‘new’ operator and to de-allocate that memory we have to use ‘delete’ operator. When we allocate a memory by using ‘new’ then we can not de-allocate a memory by using free(). ‘new’ operator internally calls malloc and…Read more

Virtual Destructors and function chaining in C++

Virtual Destructor:- As like a normal function we can create a destructor as virtual. If the class contains at least a single virtual destructor then VPTR is created and it is initialized with appropriate v-table. Virtual destructors are necessary if there is an inheritance and up casting concept is used. If virtual destructors are not written then there is a chance of a memory leak. e.g. class base { public: base() { cout<<”base class constructor.”; } ~base() { cout<<”base class destructor.”; } }; class derived:public base { derived() { cout<<”derived class constructor.”; }…Read more

Operator overloading in C++

Operator overloading:- Operator overloading is a syntactic sugar. It is the type of compile time polymorphism. Overloaded operators are used for class objects or other data members other than basic data types. When we overload an operator we do not have to call explicitly that overloaded function. It is a rule that, 1)    Do not change the meaning of previously defined operator (but we can change the meaning). 2)    Do not change precedence and associatively of that operator. We can provide an overloaded function of an operator as a member function or a…Read more

Friend Concept and ‘mutable’ Keyword in C++

Friend:- By using a friend concept we can access a private member of a class. There are multiple types of a members can be friend of our class. 1)    A friend can be any member function of a class. 2)    A friend can be any function which is not a part of any class. 3)    Whole class can be a friend of our class. Before using friend we have to use a forward declaration means we have to declare friend class at the start of a program. class friend_class; void fun(friend_class *fp) {…Read more